(九)手动部署k8s之-部署高可用 kube-controller-manager 集群

原教程来自 github/opsnull, 现在此基础上记录自己搭建遇到的问题

该集群包含 3 个节点,启动后将通过竞争选举机制产生一个 leader 节点,其它节点为阻塞状态。当 leader 节点不可用时,阻塞的节点将再次进行选举产生新的 leader 节点,从而保证服务的可用性。

为保证通信安全,本文档先生成 x509 证书和私钥,kube-controller-manager 在如下两种情况下使用该证书

  • 与 kube-apiserver 的安全端口通信;
  • 在安全端口(https,10252) 输出 prometheus 格式的 metrics;

创建 kube-controller-manager 证书和私钥

创建证书签名请求

cd /opt/k8s/work
cat > kube-controller-manager-csr.json <<EOF
{
    "CN": "system:kube-controller-manager",
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "hosts": [
      "127.0.0.1",
      "192.168.1.31",
      "192.168.1.32",
      "192.168.1.33"
    ],
    "names": [
      {
        "C": "CN",
        "ST": "BeiJing",
        "L": "BeiJing",
        "O": "system:kube-controller-manager",
        "OU": "4Paradigm"
      }
    ]
}
EOF
  • hosts 列表包含所有 kube-controller-manager 节点 IP;
  • CN 和 O 均为 system:kube-controller-manager,kubernetes 内置的 ClusterRoleBindings system:kube-controller-manager 赋予 kube-controller-manager 工作所需的权限。

生成证书和私钥

cd /opt/k8s/work
cfssl gencert -ca=/opt/k8s/work/ca.pem \
  -ca-key=/opt/k8s/work/ca-key.pem \
  -config=/opt/k8s/work/ca-config.json \
  -profile=kubernetes kube-controller-manager-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-controller-manager
ls kube-controller-manager*pem

将生成的证书和私钥分发到所有 master 节点

cd /opt/k8s/work
source /opt/k8s/bin/environment.sh
for node_ip in ${NODE_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${node_ip}"
    scp kube-controller-manager*.pem root@${node_ip}:/etc/kubernetes/cert/
  done

创建和分发 kubeconfig 文件

kube-controller-manager 使用 kubeconfig 文件访问 apiserver,该文件提供了 apiserver 地址、嵌入的 CA 证书和 kube-controller-manager 证书

cd /opt/k8s/work
source /opt/k8s/bin/environment.sh
kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/k8s/work/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig

kubectl config set-credentials system:kube-controller-manager \
  --client-certificate=kube-controller-manager.pem \
  --client-key=kube-controller-manager-key.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig

kubectl config set-context system:kube-controller-manager \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user=system:kube-controller-manager \
  --kubeconfig=kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig

kubectl config use-context system:kube-controller-manager --kubeconfig=kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig

分发 kubeconfig 到所有 master 节点

cd /opt/k8s/work
source /opt/k8s/bin/environment.sh
for node_ip in ${NODE_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${node_ip}"
    scp kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig root@${node_ip}:/etc/kubernetes/
  done

创建 kube-controller-manager systemd unit 模板文件

cd /opt/k8s/work
source /opt/k8s/bin/environment.sh
cat > kube-controller-manager.service.template <<EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Controller Manager
Documentation=https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes

[Service]
WorkingDirectory=${K8S_DIR}/kube-controller-manager
ExecStart=/opt/k8s/bin/kube-controller-manager \\
  --profiling \\
  --cluster-name=kubernetes \\
  --controllers=*,bootstrapsigner,tokencleaner \\
  --kube-api-qps=1000 \\
  --kube-api-burst=2000 \\
  --leader-elect \\
  --use-service-account-credentials\\
  --concurrent-service-syncs=2 \\
  --bind-address=##NODE_IP## \\
  --secure-port=10252 \\
  --tls-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/kube-controller-manager.pem \\
  --tls-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/kube-controller-manager-key.pem \\
  --port=0 \\
  --authentication-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig \\
  --client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem \\
  --requestheader-allowed-names="" \\
  --requestheader-client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem \\
  --requestheader-extra-headers-prefix="X-Remote-Extra-" \\
  --requestheader-group-headers=X-Remote-Group \\
  --requestheader-username-headers=X-Remote-User \\
  --authorization-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig \\
  --cluster-signing-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem \\
  --cluster-signing-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca-key.pem \\
  --experimental-cluster-signing-duration=876000h \\
  --horizontal-pod-autoscaler-sync-period=10s \\
  --concurrent-deployment-syncs=10 \\
  --concurrent-gc-syncs=30 \\
  --node-cidr-mask-size=24 \\
  --service-cluster-ip-range=${SERVICE_CIDR} \\
  --pod-eviction-timeout=6m \\
  --terminated-pod-gc-threshold=10000 \\
  --root-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem \\
  --service-account-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca-key.pem \\
  --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig \\
  --logtostderr=true \\
  --v=2
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
  • --port=0:关闭监听非安全端口(http),同时 --address 参数无效,--bind-address 参数有效;
  • --secure-port=10252、--bind-address=0.0.0.0: 在所有网络接口监听 10252 端口的 https /metrics 请求;
  • --kubeconfig:指定 kubeconfig 文件路径,kube-controller-manager 使用它连接和验证 kube-apiserver;
  • --authentication-kubeconfig 和 --authorization-kubeconfig:kube-controller-manager 使用它连接 apiserver,对 client 的请求进行认证和授权。kube-controller-manager 不再使用 --tls-ca-file 对请求 https metrics 的 Client 证书进行校验。如果没有配置这两个 kubeconfig 参数,则 client 连接 kube-controller-manager https 端口的请求会被拒绝(提示权限不足)。
  • --cluster-signing-*-file:签名 TLS Bootstrap 创建的证书;
  • --experimental-cluster-signing-duration:指定 TLS Bootstrap 证书的有效期;
  • --root-ca-file:放置到容器 ServiceAccount 中的 CA 证书,用来对 kube-apiserver 的证书进行校验;
  • --service-account-private-key-file:签名 ServiceAccount 中 Token 的私钥文件,必须和 kube-apiserver 的 --service-account-key-file 指定的公钥文件配对使用;
  • --service-cluster-ip-range :指定 Service Cluster IP 网段,必须和 kube-apiserver 中的同名参数一致;
  • --leader-elect=true:集群运行模式,启用选举功能;被选为 leader 的节点负责处理工作,其它节点为阻塞状态;
  • --controllers=*,bootstrapsigner,tokencleaner:启用的控制器列表,tokencleaner 用于自动清理过期的 Bootstrap token;
  • --horizontal-pod-autoscaler-*:custom metrics 相关参数,支持 autoscaling/v2alpha1;
  • --tls-cert-file、--tls-private-key-file:使用 https 输出 metrics 时使用的 Server 证书和秘钥;
  • --use-service-account-credentials=true: kube-controller-manager 中各 controller 使用 serviceaccount 访问 kube-apiserver;

为各节点创建和分发 kube-controller-mananger systemd unit 文件

替换模板文件中的变量,为各节点创建 systemd unit 文件

cd /opt/k8s/work
source /opt/k8s/bin/environment.sh
for (( i=0; i < 3; i++ ))
  do
    sed -e "s/##NODE_NAME##/${NODE_NAMES[i]}/" -e "s/##NODE_IP##/${NODE_IPS[i]}/" kube-controller-manager.service.template > kube-controller-manager-${NODE_IPS[i]}.service 
  done
ls kube-controller-manager*.service
  • NODE_NAMES 和 NODE_IPS 为相同长度的 bash 数组,分别为节点名称和对应的 IP

分发到所有 master 节点

cd /opt/k8s/work
source /opt/k8s/bin/environment.sh
for node_ip in ${NODE_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${node_ip}"
    scp kube-controller-manager-${node_ip}.service root@${node_ip}:/etc/systemd/system/kube-controller-manager.service
  done
  • 文件重命名为 kube-controller-manager.service;

启动 kube-controller-manager 服务

source /opt/k8s/bin/environment.sh
for node_ip in ${NODE_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${node_ip}"
    ssh root@${node_ip} "mkdir -p ${K8S_DIR}/kube-controller-manager"
    ssh root@${node_ip} "systemctl daemon-reload && systemctl enable kube-controller-manager && systemctl restart kube-controller-manager"
  done
  • 启动服务前必须先创建工作目录;

检查服务运行状态

source /opt/k8s/bin/environment.sh
for node_ip in ${NODE_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${node_ip}"
    ssh root@${node_ip} "systemctl status kube-controller-manager|grep Active"
  done

确保状态为 active (running),否则查看日志,确认原因

journalctl -u kube-controller-manager

kube-controller-manager 监听 10252 端口,接收 https 请求

[root@ _47_ /opt/k8s/work]# netstat -lnpt | grep kube-cont
tcp        0      0 192.168.1.31:10252      0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      12242/kube-controll 

查看输出的 metrics

注意:以下命令在 kube-controller-manager 节点上执行

[root@ _48_ /opt/k8s/work]# curl -s --cacert /opt/k8s/work/ca.pem --cert /opt/k8s/work/admin.pem --key /opt/k8s/work/admin-key.pem https://192.168.1.31:10252/metrics |head
# HELP apiserver_audit_event_total Counter of audit events generated and sent to the audit backend.
# TYPE apiserver_audit_event_total counter
apiserver_audit_event_total 0
# HELP apiserver_audit_requests_rejected_total Counter of apiserver requests rejected due to an error in audit logging backend.
# TYPE apiserver_audit_requests_rejected_total counter
apiserver_audit_requests_rejected_total 0
# HELP apiserver_client_certificate_expiration_seconds Distribution of the remaining lifetime on the certificate used to authenticate a request.
# TYPE apiserver_client_certificate_expiration_seconds histogram
apiserver_client_certificate_expiration_seconds_bucket{le="0"} 0
apiserver_client_certificate_expiration_seconds_bucket{le="1800"} 0

kube-controller-manager 的权限

ClusteRole system:kube-controller-manager 的权限很小,只能创建 secret、serviceaccount 等资源对象,各 controller 的权限分散到 ClusterRole system:controller:XXX 中:

[root@ _49_ /opt/k8s/work]# kubectl describe clusterrole system:kube-controller-manager
Name:         system:kube-controller-manager
Labels:       kubernetes.io/bootstrapping=rbac-defaults
Annotations:  rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate: true
PolicyRule:
  Resources                                  Non-Resource URLs  Resource Names  Verbs
  ---------                                  -----------------  --------------  -----
  secrets                                    []                 []              [create delete get update]
  endpoints                                  []                 []              [create get update]
  serviceaccounts                            []                 []              [create get update]
  events                                     []                 []              [create patch update]
  tokenreviews.authentication.k8s.io         []                 []              [create]
  subjectaccessreviews.authorization.k8s.io  []                 []              [create]
  configmaps                                 []                 []              [get]
  namespaces                                 []                 []              [get]
  *.*                                        []                 []              [list watch]

需要在 kube-controller-manager 的启动参数中添加 --use-service-account-credentials=true 参数,这样 main controller 会为各 controller 创建对应的 ServiceAccount XXX-controller。内置的 ClusterRoleBinding system:controller:XXX 将赋予各 XXX-controller ServiceAccount 对应的 ClusterRole system:controller:XXX 权限。

[root@ _50_ /opt/k8s/work]# kubectl get clusterrole|grep controller
system:controller:attachdetach-controller                              2d6h
system:controller:certificate-controller                               2d6h
system:controller:clusterrole-aggregation-controller                   2d6h
system:controller:cronjob-controller                                   2d6h
system:controller:daemon-set-controller                                2d6h
system:controller:deployment-controller                                2d6h
system:controller:disruption-controller                                2d6h
system:controller:endpoint-controller                                  2d6h
system:controller:expand-controller                                    2d6h
system:controller:generic-garbage-collector                            2d6h
system:controller:horizontal-pod-autoscaler                            2d6h
system:controller:job-controller                                       2d6h
system:controller:namespace-controller                                 2d6h
system:controller:node-controller                                      2d6h
system:controller:persistent-volume-binder                             2d6h
system:controller:pod-garbage-collector                                2d6h
system:controller:pv-protection-controller                             2d6h
system:controller:pvc-protection-controller                            2d6h
system:controller:replicaset-controller                                2d6h
system:controller:replication-controller                               2d6h
system:controller:resourcequota-controller                             2d6h
system:controller:route-controller                                     2d6h
system:controller:service-account-controller                           2d6h
system:controller:service-controller                                   2d6h
system:controller:statefulset-controller                               2d6h
system:controller:ttl-controller                                       2d6h
system:kube-controller-manager                                         2d6h

查看当前的 leader

[root@ _1_ ~]# kubectl get endpoints kube-controller-manager --namespace=kube-system  -o yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Endpoints
metadata:
  annotations:
    control-plane.alpha.kubernetes.io/leader: '{"holderIdentity":"slave-32_49c0e734-b401-11e9-9fe5-000c29eca111","leaseDurationSeconds":15,"acquireTime":"2019-08-01T02:09:14Z","renewTime":"2019-08-01T02:13:32Z","leaderTransitions":11}'
  creationTimestamp: "2019-07-31T09:21:27Z"
  name: kube-controller-manager
  namespace: kube-system
  resourceVersion: "46796"
  selfLink: /api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/endpoints/kube-controller-manager
  uid: 92db14af-b374-11e9-8197-000c293d1de7

可见,当前的 leader 为 slave-32 节点

测试 kube-controller-manager 集群的高可用

停掉一个或两个节点的 kube-controller-manager 服务,观察其它节点的日志,看是否获取了 leader 权限。

最后修改:2019 年 08 月 05 日 05 : 10 PM